Hydraulic Motor: Major Types and Its Working Principle

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Hydraulic Motor: Major Types and Its Working Principle

The hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor have many factors in common. A pump is used for converting mechanical energy to hydraulic and the motor will perform the reverse operation of converting hydraulic energy to mechanical. Usually, a motor is placed at the end of the circuit and a pump at the beginning. With a hydraulic motor, it is possible to develop rotary motion and torque. When rotated in the reverse direction, a motor can act as a hydraulic pump. Here mentioned are the major types and specifications of the hydraulic motor.

Almost every hydraulic application requires a motor to produce mechanical motion. The hydraulic motors are mostly preferred for direct drive applications and these motors can be operated at relatively low speed and high pressure. Also, it can generate extremely high torques. In other words, a motor is the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder.

The hydraulic motor is available in different sizes, broad temperature range, viscosity range, design variations and speed ranges. According to application requirements, a hydraulic motor is mainly categorized as gear, piston, and vane motors.

Hydraulic Gear Motor: The gear motor is compact in size and can be used for simple rotating systems. The benefits of a hydraulic gear motor are durability, contamination tolerance, high rpm, and low initial cost. The driven gear and idler gear are the two gears of the gear motor. In the gear motor, pressurized oil will flow from one side of the gear to the output port. The motor design also restricts the flow of fluid back to the inlet port. External gear and internal gear are the two types of hydraulic gear motors. The external gear motor uses externally mounted gears and the internal gear motor uses internal gears to produce the required energy.

Hydraulic Piston Motor: The axial piston and radial piston are the two types of hydraulic piston motors. Among these, axial piston motors use axially mounted piston and radial-piston hydraulic motor include pistons mounted radially. This motor is mostly preferred for hydraulic systems and used for mobile and construction equipment, winches, ship-cranes, etc... The piston-type motor can be combined with variable-displacement pumps to transfer power between the driving element and a driven element. This motor can deliver high speed, large displacement volume, and can be operated at a high-pressure range.

Hydraulic Vane Motor: The reliable hydraulic vane motor with a simple design and compact size will offer overall efficiency at rated conditions and limited low-speed capability. The vanes of this motor are extended by applying fluid pressure for generating mechanical energy. The rotor is mounted onto a drive shaft and the vanes are closely fitted to the rotor slot to move radially. The cam ring contains two major and two minor radial sections connected together using transitional sections or ramps. Two or four-port are the two different vane motor configurations.

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